In Farm Mechanization, a tractor is an inevitable machine that generates power which can be utilized in number of ways. Common set of important implements are a need for a farmer right from tillage to harvesting. Following are the common useful implements/attachments.
Power Harrows belong to tillage equipment category that are driven by the power take-off shaft of a tractor and best suited for hard and hard-clay soil conditions.
A power harrow functions typically the way the egg-beater does the stirring action. This breaks up the soil lumps / clods after the land has been tilled. The fine soil is forced to the seedbed level and the small clods and compost remain on the surface to create a perfect seed-bed. They can be used as secondary tillage after ploughing or subsoiling and also can be used to till the most compacted earth in a single pass. As they do not disturb the soild layers and as they help maintain the soil’s natural composition, structure and biodiversity, the power harrows are very vital for a farmer.
To minimize soil compaction by the passes of tractor, when combined with seed drill a farmer can achieve soil cultivation and seeding in a single pass.
Mouldboard plough is also called turn-plough. Soil inversion is achieved by ploughing with a mouldboard plough. This type of ploughing helps overcome non-wetting soils, burying herbicide resistant weeds, removing soil compaction, increased nitrogen mineralization and improved nutrient access. In due course of the time, the top-soil becomes water repellent and by using a mouldboard plough brings the subsoil to the surface, which is not water repellent. At the same time the top-soil is buried to the depths where it is fully wet and inhabited with the crop roots. It is also a soil renovation method if used sparingly at right intervals based on the soil types.
A mouldboard plough’s coulter cuts down into the soil and the share cuts horizontally from the previous furrow to the vertical cut. This releases a rectangular strip of sod and places it upside down. The gap in the ground where the soil has been lifted is called a furrow.
ROTARY TILLER / ROTAVATOR
Rotary Tiller (Rotavator) is a better way to pulverize quickly and make a perfect leveling of worked out soil. Any stubbles of previous crop or any weed are cut into small pieces to make them natural organic manure. It increases soil porosity and aeration and also retain soil moisture. It is suitable for both dry and wet land cultivation. Puddling is done very smoothly with great efficiency.
A Disc Plough is a farm implement to cultivate the soil, to cut the stubbles of previous crops and mix them in the soil to make them natural organic manure. A Disc Plough can be used in hard soil conditions to fulfill the needs like breaking, raising, turning and mixing of soil.The plough is made up of main frame, disc beams, rockshaft assembly, furrow wheel and a gauge wheel. The desired width of the cut or the plough is obtained through the disc angles ranging from 40 to 45 degrees. The penetration is obtained through the tilt angle ranging 15 to 25 degrees. Normally the discs are made of carbon steel or alloy steel. Scrapers are available in certain models to prevent soil build up. The furrow slice pulverizes the soil before it settles down.
An automatic potato planter is a farm implement towed by a tractor to sow seed potatoes. Seed potatoes are lifted by the cups, dropped into tubes and planted through drilling. An automatic potato planter is normally multifunctional to create ditches, apply fertilizers, sow, and form bunds. An automatic implement can plant potatoes in a two or four row formation. Some models come with fertilizer metering unit to adjust and regulate the distribution of fertilizer.
Potato harvesting is made easy by this farm implement that can dig, pick, clean and grade potatoes at one go. An automatic potato harvester dig the potatoes from the soil using a share and the loose soil is sieved out. The picked up potatoes move on an elevator to the back of the harvester for collection. Some machines can do grading and packing too at the same time.
To speed up harvesting, a harvester is the need of the hour. Normally, harvesters are self-propelled combine harvester that can harvest crops like paddy, wheat, maize, soybean, Bengal gram, green gram.